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Advanced English
Lesson 1 - Greetings
Grammar

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Present Perfect

Affirmative/Negative Question
He has walked.
(He's walked.)
She
It

He has not walked.
(He hasn't walked.)          
She
It

Has he walked?
      she
      it

Short Answers
- Yes, he has.
- No, he hasn't.

They have walked.
(They've walked.)
I
You
We

They have not walked.
(They haven't walked.)
I
You
We

Have they walked?
        I
        you
        we

Short Answers
- Yes, they have.
- No, they haven't.

(Negative in red)
(Contractions in parenthesis)

The present perfect is used to describe an action that started in the past and continues in the present. It is formed with the verb "have" and the past partciple ("lived" in the example below).

I have lived in California for one year.

It can also be used to describe an action that happened at a non-specific time in the past (sometime in the past).

I have visited China.

In the example above I don't specify when.  If I wanted to specify when, I would have to use the past tense.

I visited China last year.

Note: The verb "have" can only be contracted in the present perfect (when it functions as an auxiliary, or "helping", verb. We can't contract the verb "have" when it indicates possession (e.g. "I have a car.")

I've visited China.

I have a computer.

I've a computer.
(incorrect)

Past Participles

The participle form of the verb is used with the present perfect form.  The participle is usually formed by adding the letters -ed to the end of the verb (the same as the past tense).  However, there are many irregular participle forms.  Sometimes they are the same as the past tense form and sometimes they are different.  The following table contains a list of some common irregular participle forms.  I also included the past tense form for review.  We will be studying irregular participle forms in some of the lessons in the advanced level just as we practiced with the past tense in the intermediate level.

Verb Past Participle
be was/were been
see saw seen
go went gone
meet met met
give gave given
buy bought bought
come came come
drink    drank drunk
eat ate eaten
do did done

Practice
In the spaces provided, use your imagination to write sentences using the irregular verbs from the table above. (Since there are so many possible answers, I can't correct this exercise. This is just for practice.)

example
go - went - gone

Past

Participle

be - was/were - been

Past

Participle

see - saw - seen

Past

Participle

go - went - gone

Past

Participle

meet - met - met

Past

Participle

give - gave - given

Past

Participle

buy - bought - bought

Past

Participle

come - came - come

Past

Participle

drink - drank - drunk

Past

Participle

eat - ate - eaten

Past

Participle

do - did - done

Past

Participle

 

Practice
Fill out the table below with the irregular verbs. If you write a space after a word, the computer will think that it's an error.

Verb Past Participle
see
go
meet
give
buy
come
drink
eat
do

Practice
Make a sentence in the present perfect using the information provided.  Add "have" or "has" and change the verb to the participle form.  If the verb is not in the list of irregular verbs above, you can assume that it is regular (-ed in participle form).  In the second text box write the same sentence in the contracted form.  Sentences with "not" should be made negative (see the example below).

examples

He - walk in the park

Contraction


They - not go to France

Contraction

1. She - work here for two years

Contraction

2. I - finish my homework

Contraction

3. They - meet many famous people

Contraction

4. My parents - not see the movie

Contraction

5. John - buy a new car

Contraction

6. He - not eat dinner

Contraction

7. Laura - not go to China

Contraction

8. We - finish our work

Contraction

9. The students - not go to school

Contraction

10. You - not buy a new car

Contraction

 

Practice
Change the sentences to questions.

example
He has studied in China.

1. The students have finished their homework.
   
   

2. Rick has cooked the fish.
   
   

3. They've seen the movie.
   
   

4. He's given her the present.
   
   

5. She's met a lot of famous people.
   
   

6. Kim's eaten the cake.
   
   

7. The children have bought new shoes.
   
   

 

for/since

The word "for" is used with periods of time.

I've lived here for two years.
She's worked at that company for seven months.
They've been here for 10 minutes.

The word "since" is used with the specific starting time of an activity.

I've lived here since 1998.
She's worked at that company since she moved to California.
They've been here since 8:30.

Practice
Select the word "for" or "since" in each sentence.

1. He's worked at the ABC Company 1987.
   

2. She has studied at that school three months.
   

3. They've been in the restaurant 7:00.
   

4. She's worked on that project three hours.
   

5. Billy and Tommy have been friends they met.
   

6. He's attended that university he graduated from high school.
   

7. We've stayed at the hotel Tuesday.
   

8. They've been married twenty years.
   

9. We've lived in this house a long time.
   

10. She's been in the classroom twenty minutes.
   

 

Find the Mistake

Instructions
Find the errors in the sentences.  Write the sentences correctly.

example
She are a student. --> She is a student.

1. I've ate a lot of food.
  

2. She's exercised since two hours.
  

3. I have gaven her many presents.
  

4. Have she been to China?  
  

5. I have lived in this house for 1990.
  

 

Study English Abroad

You will find more information about studying English abroad and inexpensive alternatives to studying abroad in the Study Abroad area of Passport to English.

Study Abroad Information
Why study abroad?
What to look for in a study abroad program
Types of Programs
Alternatives to Study Abroad
Home Exchange

 

 

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