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Lesson 14
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Advanced English
Lesson 14 - Animals
Grammar

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Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses

Restrictive Clauses

Restrictive clauses contain information essential to the meaning of a sentence. The sentence doesn't make sense without the clause. Note in the examples below how the clause gives information to describe and define the nouns that precede it. For example, the first sentence doesn't make sense if you only say, "He's the man." You wouldn't know what man is being referred to.

He's the man that interviewed the president.
That's the place where I lost my earring.
The man who stole the necklace is now in jail.

A restrictive clause begins with a relative pronoun.

Relative Pronouns
Pronoun The pronoun is used for a . . .
that, who, whom* person
whose possessive
that, which thing
where place
when time
why reason

*Who is a subject pronoun and "whom" is an object pronoun.

Practice
Combine the two sentences to form a sentence with a restrictive clause. Use the relative pronoun in parentheses. Note that when you combine the two sentences, you eliminate the repeated information (the noun refered to in both sentences). This is why we eliminate "He" in the first example below and "The woman" in the second example.

examples
He's the man. He broke the world record in running. (who)

The woman gave me a rose. The woman works in the flower shop. (that)

1. That's the book. The book won a national award. (that)
   
   

2. That's the restaurant. We go to eat pizza there. (where)
   
   

3. She's the teacher. She teaches science and math at my school. (who)
   
   

4. We go to the park. It is near our house. (that)
   
   

5. Susan wrote a letter. It was published in the newspaper. (which)
   
   

 

Nonrestrictive Clauses

Nonrestrictive clauses give extra information (not essential to the meaning of the sentence). The nonrestrictive clause is the part in red in the examples below. Note that we separate the clause from the rest of the sentence with commas.

John, who lives near my house, is in my Spanish class this year.
He went on vacation to San Diego, which is in the United States.
Helen, whose mother is the school principal, volunteered to help with the program.

A nonrestrictive clause also begins with a relative pronoun but with nonrestrictive clauses we cannot use the word "that".

Relative Pronouns
Pronoun The pronoun is used for a . . .
who, whom* person
whose possessive
which thing
where place
when time
why reason

*Who is a subject pronoun and "whom" is an object pronoun.

Practice
Combine the two sentences to form a sentence with a nonrestrictive clause. Use the relative pronoun in parentheses. Note that when you combine the two sentences, you eliminate the repeated information (the noun refered to in both sentences). This is why we eliminate "She" in the first example below and "It" in the second example.

ejemplos
I called Jane Thomas. She used to work at the pharmacy. (who)

San Francisco is a beautiful city. It is in northern California. (which)

1. I ate at Gino's Restaurant. It is on Main Street. (which)
   
   

2. We went to the beach. They had a sand castle competition at the beach. (where)
   
   

3. Norma is a great cook. She is my friend's mother. (who)
   
   

4. The senator spoke to the audience. The senator's book was published recently. (whose)
   
   

5. The building was recognized for its spectacular architecture. It was rebuilt after the fire. (which)
   
   

 

Find the Mistake

Instructions
Find the errors in the sentences.  Write the sentences correctly.

example
She are a student. --> She is a student.

1. The products, who were sold in five countries, are very popular.
   
   

2. Anfibians, which include frogs and toads, are cold-blooded animals.
   
   

3. The television, wich broke yesterday, is now working.
   
   

4. Sharon, who helped me in class is a very nice person.*
   
   

5. He wrote the report, that was presented to the board of directors.*
   
   

*The error in these sentences is that they need or don't need a comma.

 

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